Research Guides to Jewish Studies: Bible


A. Hebrew Bible

1. Critical Editions:
  • Keter Yerushalayim [M. Breuer] BS715 2000b REF
  • BHS: Torah, Nevi'im u-Ketuvim: Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia BS715 1984REF
  • * Guides to Understanding the BHS Apparatus
    • A Simplified Guide to BHS William R. Scott BS715 1977cCIR
    • Understanding BHS: a Manual for Users… R. Wonneberger BS718.W5821990 REF
  • BHQ [in progress]: Megilot; Ezra-Nehemiah BS715 2004 REF
  • HUBP: Hebrew University Bible Project:
    • Isaiah BS1512.G62 1995 REF
    • Jeremiah BS1525.2.T68 1997 REF
    • Ezekiel BS1542.G67 2004 REF
2. Electronic Editions and Aids
3. Translations
  • JPS Hebrew–English Tanakh BS895.J4 1999REF/CIR/networked CD ROM
  • The Five Books of Moses Everett Fox BS1223.A3F681995REF

B. Apocrypha/Pseudepigrapha

  • The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament in English R.H. Charles BS1692.C45 1913b REF
  • The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha James H. Charlesworth BS1830.A3 1983 RSV


A. Dictionaries

  • BDB: Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament PJ4833.B68 DICT
  • Index to Brown, Driver & Briggs Lexicon Bruce Einspahr PJ4833.B683E35 DICT
  • The Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament Ludwig Koehler and J. Baumgartner PJ4833.K62132001DICT
  • The Dictionary of Classical Hebrew (Sheffield Press) [in progress] PJ4833.D5 1993 DICT
  • Dictionary of North-West Semitic Inscriptions Jacob Hoftijzer PJ3085.H63 1995DICT

B. Encyclopedias

  • The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible BS440.I63 1962REF
  • The Anchor Bible Dictionary BS440.A54 1992REF
  • Entsiklopedyah Mikra'it BS440.E5 ENCYC
  • Entsiklopedyah 'Olam ha-Tanakh BS1178.H4E581982+ REF
  • 'Olam ha-Tanakh BS1178.H4O55 1993 + REF

C. Concordances

  • Konkordantsyah hadashah, A. Even-Shoshan BS1121.E47 1977REF
  • Konkordantsyah la-Tanakh, S. Mandelkern BS1121.M3 1971 + REF

D. Lexical Studies

  • Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament (multivolume) G. Johannes Botterweck (ed.) BS440.B5713 1977REF
  • Theologisches Handweorterbuch zum Alten Testament Ernst Jenni and Claus Westermann BS440.T48131977REF

E. Grammars

  • Grammaire de l'hebreu biblique (Two volumes, English) P. Jouon and T. Muraoka PJ4564.J6131991RSV
  • Introduction to Biblical Hebrew T. Lambdin PJ4567.L3 REF
  • A Practical Grammar for Classical Hebrew J. Weingreen PJ4567.W4 1959REF

F. Atlases

  • The Carta Bible Atlas Yohanan Aharoni G2230.A22002+ REF
  • The Macmillan Bible Atlas Anson F. Rainey et al G2230.A21993+ REF
  • The Oxford Bible Atlas (3rd ed.) Herbert Gordon May BS630.O96 1984 (2nd ed.) REF

G. Time Lines

  • The Timetables of Jewish History Judah Gribetz et al. DS114.G74+ REF
  • Seder ha-Korot ba-Tanakh (The Sequence of Events in the OId Testament) BS637.2.S4213 1987 REF
  • The Hebrew Bible: A Socio-Literary Introduction Norman K. Gottwald BS1140.2.G6 1985 RSV

H. Citation Style, etc.


A. Languages

1. Akkadian
  • Assyrian Dictionary (CAD) University of Chicago [in progress] PJ 3525 U5 DICT
  • Akkadisches Handwoerterbuch Wolfram von Soden PJ3540.S6 1965DICT
  • A Concise Dictionary of Akkadian ed. Jeremy Black et al. PJ3525.C65 1999DICT
2. Ugaritic
  • A Dictionary of the Ugaritic Language in the Alphabetic Tradition Gregorio del Olmo Lete et al. PJ4150.Z5O556132003DICT
  • Ras Shamra Parallels: The Texts from Ugarit and the Hebrew Bible Loren R. Fisher PJ25.A65 1972 -81 + REF
  • Concordance of the Ugaritic Literature Richard E. Whitaker PJ4150.Z5W5 1972 REF
3. Hittite
  • Hittite Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago P945.Z8 1980DICT
4. Phoenician
  • Phoenician–Punic Dictionary Charles R. Krahmalkov PJ 4185.K7 2000DICT

B. Culture

1. Text Translations
  • Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament James Pritchard BS1180.P831969+ REF
  • The Context of Scripture (three volumes) William W. Hallo and K. Lawson Younger eds. BS1180.C66 + REF/RSV
2. Encyclopedias
3. Culture
  • Civilizations of the Ancient Near East ed. Jack M. Sasson DS57.C552000 +REF
  • Gods, Demons and Symbols of Ancient Mesopotamia J. A. Black BL2350.I7B571992
  • Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Ancient Near East DS56.O9 1997 +REF
  • New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land DS111.A2N488 1993 REF
  • Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible (DDD) BS680.G57D53 1998 REF


A. Texts

  • The Septuagint Version of the Old Testament and Apocrypha "Bagster" BS742.B74 1972REF
  • Septuaginta Alfred Rahlfs BS741.R3 REF
  • Cambridge University Septuagint +BS741.B7 1906 REF
  • Gottingen Septuaginta BS741. A38 REF
  • English Translation of the Septuagint

B. Dictionaries

  • A Lexicon: Abridged from Liddell and Scott's Greek–English Lexicon Henry George Lidell PA445.E5L71984RSV
  • A Greek–English Lexicon of the Septuagint: Twelve Prophets T. Muraoka PA 781.M871993 + REF
  • A Greek–English Lexicon of the Septuagint J. Lust et al. PA781.L87 1992REF
  • The Analytical Lexicon of the Septuagint: A Complete Parsing Guide Bernard A. Taylor BS 744.T38 1994DICT


A. Texts

For English translations of individual Targumim, see Midrash/Targum in English Strategies.

  • Kitve ha-Kodesh ba-Aramit ed. A. Sperber BS708.S63 REF
  • Codex Neofiti 1 BS1224.A76 1968 REF
  • Targum Yonatan al ha-Torah ed. D. Rider BS1224.A74 1984 REF
  • The Old Testament in Syriac: Peshitta Version BS711 1972 REF
  • Ha-Targum ha-Shomroni la-Torah ed. Tal BM920 1980 REF

B. Dictionaries

  • A Dictionary of the Targumim… Marcus Jastrow PJ5205.J31903DICT
  • A Dictionary of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic of the Talmudic and Geonic Periods Michael Sokoloff PJ5305.S63 2002RSV
  • The Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon


  • Perush Rav Saadia Gaon al ha-Torah BS1225.X2S2 1963 REF
  • Arabic–English, English–Arabic Dictionary John Wortabet PJ6640.W571995DICT


  • Discoveries in the Judean Desert (multivolume) BM487.A11961-+REF
  • A Catalog of Biblical Passages in the Dead Sea Scrolls BS1099.H4 W37 2003 REF
  • Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls +BM487.E53 2000 REF


A. Critical Editions

  • Torat Hayim Mosad ha-Rav Kuk BS12221986cREF
  • Mikra'ot Gedolot Ha-Keter Bar Ilan University Press [in progress] BS7151992+ REF

B. Standard Mikraot Gedolot

For English translations of particular exegetes, see Parshanut in English.

  • Humash BS1222 1990b REF
  • Nakh BS1286.A2 2001 REF
  • Tanakh BS715 1961cREF (Warsaw ed.)
  • Tanakh BS715 1972 + REF (first Masoretic MG)

C. Masoretic Studies

  • Bet Tsiporah: Masorah Gedolah Gerard E. Weil BS718.W41+ REF
  • Introduction to the Tiberian Masorah Israel Yeivin BS718.Y4413 REF
  • Ha-Masorah la-Mik.ra Israel Yeivin BS718 .Y45 2003
  • Minhat Shai al ha-Torah ed. Yosef Ofer BS12225.X2 N67 2005 REF

D. Index of Classical Rabbinic Literature

Indexed to scripture by chapter and verse

  • Torah ha-ketuvah veha-mesurah (3 vols) Aaron Hyman BS1099.H4H9 1979REF
  • Torah Shelemah M.M. Kasher et al. [in progress? up to Deuteronomy] BS 1225.X2K36 1992REF
  • Bar Ilan Responsa Project and Judaic Classics Networked CD ROMs

E. Midrashic and Aggadic Anthologies

Indexed by subject
For English translations of individual midrashim, see Midrash/Targum in English Strategies

  • The Legends of the Jews (7 vols) Louis Ginzberg BM530.G5 1909REF
  • Encyclopedia of Biblical Personalities Y. Chasidah BS570.H2613 1994REF
  • The Book of Legends/Sefer ha-aggadah Bialik/Ravnitsky BM516.B51962 REF
  • Otsar ha-Aggadah BM516.G7 REF
  • Motif-index of Talmudic Midrashic Literature Noy BM516.N63 REF
  • Aspaklaria (multivolume) BM50.A34 REF


  • ATLA Religion Index accessible (on campus only) via JTS Library page
  • RAMBI accessible via JTS Library page (open access)
  • Old Testament Abstracts accessible (on campus only) via JTS Library page
  • Biblical Bibliography
  • Project Muse
  • ProQuest Dissertations & Theses
  • Elenchus of Biblica PER/ABSTRACTS
  • An Index to English Periodical Literature on the Old Testament and Ancient Near Eastern Studies W.G. Hupper [7 vols to date] Z7772.A1H86 1987 REF
  • Bibliographies for Biblical Research: Old Testament Series [to date 16 vols on: 2K, 1Chr, 2Chr, Ezr-Neh, Job, Ps, Pro, Ecc-Can, Isa, Jer-Lam, Eze, Dan, Am-Oba, Jon-Mic, Hos-Joel, Nah-Hab] Z7772.A1B53 1997 REF
  • International Review of Biblical Studies REF INDEX


(for subject-specific resources, see categories above)

XI. Parshanut

The works below are identified only by their authors' and translators' names or publishers; for further bibliographical information, copy the call numbers into the JTS online catalog under "Browse: Index: LC Call Number." Only substantial (more than a chapter or two) and systematic translations are included in the list. Unless otherwise indicated, the items below cover the entire book, number of volumes notwithstanding (e.g., four volumes on the five books of Torah). Items marked "currently . . ." are works in progress. Paraphrases, anthologies, or digests of translations, such as are found in the Hertz, Soncino Press, Judaica Press, ArtScroll, Living Torah, and Living Nach or Etz Hayim Bible commentaries, are not included. Condensed versions, as are sometimes found in Munk translations, are included. The JPS Commentators Bible (so far on Exodus alone), in addition to its systematic translation of four major commentators, also occasionally includes selections from Bekhor Shor, Radak, Hizkuni, Gersonides, Abarbanel, and Sforno. These latter have not been included in the list. Finally, academic or modern critical commentaries are excluded.


I. Sa'adiah ben Joseph Gaon [882–942]

A. Torah
1. Linetsky [Gen 1–28] BS1235.X2 S213 2002 [REF]
B. Job
1. Goodman BS1415.2. S143 1988 [REF, CIR]

II. Rabenu Hananel ben Hushiel [d. 1055/6]

A. Torah
1. Munk BS1225.X2 M8 2003 6 vols. [CIR]

III. Rashi [Solomon ben Isaac, 1041–1105]

A. Bible
1. Rosenberg
B. Torah
1. Lowe [only on Gen] BS1235.X2 S62 L6 [CIR]
2. Doron [Gen 1–6] BS1235.3.D6 1982 [CIR]
3. Rosenbaum/Silbermann BS1222 1934 5 vols. [REF, CIR]
3. Ben-Isaiah/Sharfman BS1222 1949 5 vols. [REF, LEF, CIR]
4. Metsudah BS1222 1991 5 vols. [CIR]
5. Artscroll BS1225.X2 S6 1994 5 vols. [REF]
6. Ariel Rashi [currently on Gen] 2 vols.
7. Moore [currently on Gen] BS1225.X2 S6 M66 2002 [CIR]
8. Carasik (JPS) [currently on Ex] + BS1223. C3713 2005 [REF]
C. Joshua
1. Davis (Metsudah) BS1292.D28 1997 [CIR]
D. Judges
1. Rabinowitz/Davis (Metsudah) BS1302.D28 2001 [CIR]
E. Samuel
1. Pupko/Davis (Metsudah) BS1322.D28 1999 2 vols. [CIR]
F. Kings
1. Pupko/Davis (Metsudah) BS1335.3.D38 2001 2 vols. [CIR]
G. Psalms
1. Gruber BS1429.X2 S26 1998 [RSV]
H. Five Scrolls
1. Schwartz [Esther, Canticles, Ruth] BS1309.A2S3 [REF, CIR]
2. Davis/Pupko (Metsudah) BS1309.A2M4 2001 [CIR]
I. Ruth
1. Beattie BS1315.2.B4 [REF]

IV. Rashbam [Samuel ben Meir, ca. 1080–1174]

A. Torah
1. Lockshin BS1225.X2 S2313 1989 4 vols. [REF]
2. Munk BS1225.X2 M8 2003 6 vols. [CIR]
3. JPS (Carasik) [currently on Ex] + BS1223.C3713 2005 [REF]
B. Ecclesiastes
1. Japhet/Salters BS1475.X2 S2713 1985 [CIR]
C. Canticles
1. Thompson BS1485.X2 S26 T5 1988 [CIR]

V. Abraham ben Meir Ibn Ezra [1092–1167]

A. Torah
1. Oles [Gen] (HUC, 1960)
2. Linetsky [Gen 1-6] BS1235. I36513 1998 [CIR]
3. Shachter [Lev, Deut] BS1225.X2 I3513 1986 [REF]
4. Strickman BS1225.X2 I3513 1988 5 vols. [REF, RSV]
5. JPS (Carasik) [currently on Ex] + BS1223. C3713 2005 [REF]
B. Isaiah
1. Friedlander BS1515. I2 1964 [REF]
C. Hosea
1. Lipshitz BS1565.X2 I213 1988 [CIR]
D. Ruth
1. Beattie BS1315.2.B4 [REF]

VI. Moses ben Shesheth [fl. ca. 1190–1200?]

A. Jeremiah/Ezekiel
1. Driver BS1525.M65 1871 [CIR, GMG]

VII. Radak [David ben Joseph Kimhi, ca. 1160–ca. 1235]

A. Torah
1. Munk BS1225.X2 M8 2003 6 vols. [CIR]
B. Isaiah
1. Cohen [Isa 40-66] BS1520.X2 K5 1954 [JTS]
C. Zechariah
1. M'Caul BS1665.X2 K513 1837 [RST]
D. Psalms
1. Greenup [Pss 1-8] (1918)
2. Finch [Pss 1-10, 15-17, 19, 22, 24] BS1429.X2 K55 [CIR]
3. Baker/Nicholson [Pss 120-150] BS1429.X2 K54 1973 [CIR]
(E. Ruth?)
1. Beattie BS1315.2.B4 [REF]
F. Chronicles
1. Berger (YU, 2003)

VIII. Ezra ben Solomon of Gerona [d. ca. 1238]

A. Canticles
1. Brody BS1485.X2 M632 1999 [CIR]

IX. Ramban [Nachmanides = Moses ben Nahman, ca. 1195–ca. 1270]

A. Torah
1. Chavel BS1225.X2 M6613 5 vols. [REF, CIR]
2. Artscroll [currently thru Ex 20] BS1225.X2 M68 B7 2004 3 vols. [CIR]
3. JPS (Carasik) [currently on Ex] + BS1223.C3713 2005 [REF]
B. Ecclesiastes
1. Chavel BM45. M6313 1978 v. 1 [REF, RSV, CIR]

X. Shem Tov ben Joseph Falaquera [ca. 1225–1295]

A. (Torah)
1. Jospe B759.F334 J68 1988 [CIR]

XI. Unknown (Anonymous, probably compilatory) (thirteenth century)

A. Job
1. Hirsch BS1415.C5813 1905 [EJB]

XII. Ba'al ha-Turim [=Jacob ben Asher, ca. 1269–ca. 1340]

A. Torah
1. Artscroll BS1225.X2 J232 1999 5 vols. [REF]
2. Munk BS1225.X2 J2313 2005 4 vols. [CIR]

XIII. Gevi'a Kesef [= Joseph ben Abba Mari Ibn Kaspi, 1279–1340]

A. Genesis
1. Herring B759.C37K4 Z31 [CIR]

XIV. Midrash ha-Ne'elam (Zohar) [ca. 1280]

A. Ruth
1. Englander/Basser BM525.A6 M513 1993 [CIR]

XV. Ralbag [Gersonides = Levi ben Gershom, 1288–1344]

A. Job
1. Lassen BS1415.X2 L4 L3 [CIR]
B. Canticles
1. Kellner BS1485. L39 1998 [REF]

XVI. Rabenu Bahya ben Asher ben Hlava [d. 1340]

A. Torah
1. Munk BS1225.X31 B2313 1998/2003 7 vols. [CIR]

XVII. Avvat Nefesh [Unknown, end of fourteenth century]

A. Genesis
1. Gartig BS1225.X2 I35 G37 1995 [CIR]

XVIII. Abraham ben Isaac ha-Levi TaMaKH [d. 1393]

A. Canticles
1. Feldman BS1485.X2 A24 1970 [CIR]

XIX. Akedat Yitshak [= Isaac ben Moses Arama, ca. 1420–1494]

A. Torah
1. Munk BS1225.X3 A7 2001 2 vols. [CIR]

XX. Obadiah ben Jacob Sforno [ca. 1470–ca. 1550]

A. Torah
1. Stahl [Deut] (HUC, 1975)
2. Artscroll BS1225.X2 S4413 1987/1997 2/1 vols. [REF, CIR]
3. Munk BS1225.X2 M8 2003 6 vols. [CIR]


XXI. Moses Alshekh [1507–1593]

A. Torah
1. Munk BS1225.X2 A4313 2000 3 vols. [CIR]
B. Jonah
1. Shahar BS1605.3. A413 1992 [CIR]
C. Psalms
1. Munk BS1429.X31 A4213 1990 2 vols. [CIR]
D. Proverbs
1. Munk BS1465.X31 A413 1991 [CIR]
2. Hirshfeld/Braude 2 vols. (2006)
E. Job
1. Shahar 2 vols. (1996)
F. Ruth
1. Shahar/Oschry BS1315.X31 A4213 1991 [CIR]
G. Esther
1. Honig BS1375.X31 A413 1993 2 vols. [CIR]
H. Lamentations
1. Hirshfeld BS1535.X31 A5513 1993 [CIR]
I. Canticles
1. Shahar BS1485.X31 A4813 1993 [CIR]
J. Ecclesiastes
1. Shahar BS1475.3.A413 1992 [CIR]
K. Daniel
1. Oratz/Hirshfeld (1994)

XXII. Eliezer ben Elijah Ashkenazi [1512–1585]

A. Esther
1. Brown (BHU, 2006)

XXIII. Keli Yakar [= Ephraim Solomon ben Aaron, of Luntshits (Lenczycza), 1550–1619]

A. Torah
1. Levine [currently on Ex] BS1225.X31 E6913 2002 [CIR]
2. Kanter [Deut] BS1225.X31 E6913 2003 v. 5 [CIR]

XXIV. Tze'enah u-Re'enah [= Jacob ben Isaac Ashkenazi of Janow, 1550–1628]

A. Torah
1. Hershon [Gen] BS1235.J3 1885 [CIR]
2. Artscroll [Torah & Scrolls] BS1225.J259 1983 3 vols. [CIR]

XXV. SHLAH [Shene Luhot Ha- berit = Isaiah Horowitz, ca. 1565–1630]

A. Torah
1. Munk BS1225.X33 H613 1999 3 vols. [CIR]

XXVI. Me'am Loez [= Jacob Culi, d. 1732]

A. Bible [excluding Ezek; Job; Ezra-Neh; Dan; Chronicles]
1. Kaplan et al. BS1158.H4C8 1978 43 vols. [REF]

XXVII. Or ha-Hayim [= Hayyim ben Moses Attar, 1696–1743]

A. Torah
1. Munk BS1225.X2 I28613 1995 5 vols. [CIR]

XXVIII. Hatam Sofer [= Moses Sofer, 1762–1839]

A. Torah
1. Stern [currently on Gen-Lev] BS1225.X31 S3513 1996 3 vols. [CIR]

XXIX. Ha-Ketav veha-Kabalah [= Jacob Zevi Hirsch Meklenberg, 1785–1865]

A. Torah
1. Munk BS1225.X31 M3813 2001 7 vols. [CIR]

XXX. SHADAL [Samuel David Luzzatto, 1800–1865]

A. Torah
1. Klein [Gen] BS1235.3.L89 1998 [CIR]

XXXI. Samson Raphael Hirsch [1808–1888]

A. Torah
1. Levy BS1222 1958 6 vols. [REF, CIR]
B. Psalms
1. Hirschler BS1430.H5 1978 [REF, CIR]
C. Proverbs
1. Paritzky BS1465.3.H5 [CIR]

XXXII. Malbim [Meir Loeb ben Jehiel Michael Weiser, 1809–1879]

A. Torah
1. Faier [through Ex 12] BS1225.M313 5 vols. [REF]
B. Proverbs
1. Wengrov/Zornberg BS1555.M34 [CIR]
C. Job
1. Pfeffer BS1415.M35 P44 2003 [CIR]
D. Esther
1. Taub BS1375.5.T28 1998 [CIR]
2. Weinbach BS1375.5.W4 [CIR]

XXXIII. Netziv [Naphtali Zvi Yehudah Berlin, 1817–1893]

A. Canticles
1. Landesman BS1485.X2 B4413 1993 [CIR]
[1a. (second part) Joseph BM560.B42513 1996 [CIR] ]

XXXIV. Bet Ha-Levi [= Joseph Baer Soloveichik, 1820–1892]

A. Torah
1. Herczeg [currently on Gen - Ex] BS1225.X3S63513 1990 2 vols. [CIR]

XXXV. Joseph Breuer [1882–1980]

A. Jeremiah
1. Hirschler BS1522 1988 [CIR]
B. Ezekiel
1. Hirschler BS1543.H57 1993 [CIR]

XXXVI. Nechama Lebowitz [1905–1997]

A. Torah
1. Newman BS1193.L521 5 vols. [REF, CIR]


XXXVII. Menachem Mendel of Rimanov [1745–1815]

A. Torah
1. Levine BS1225.R9513 1996 [CIR]

XXXVIII. Mei ha-Shiloah [= Mordecai Joseph Leiner, 1802–1854]

A. Torah
1. Edwards BS1158.H4 X31 L413 2001 [CIR]

XXXIX. Sefat Emet [= Judah Aryeh Leib Alter, 1847–1905]

A. Torah
1. Green BS1225.X34 A39713 1998 [CIR]